To present, genome-wide approaches to analyzing DNA methylation have yielded a vast amount of information on its general characteristics across the plant genome. Cytosine DNA methylation is a fundamental heritable epigenetic change seen in all major eukaryotic groups and is involved in essential cellular functions such DNA structural integrity, transposable element control, and gene expression regulation. Its level can be regulated and varied by a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses in plants, and fluctuations in it are likely to enhance the rate of genetic mutations in DNA regions. DNA methylation and epigenetic markers are also important in fine-tuning the pattern of expressed genes during embryogenesis and seed development, as well as in the heterosis process, which is the improvement that occurs when individuals from different varieties or species cross. To uncover the depth of epigenetic mechanisms and better comprehend all of their biological roles, it will be useful to combine and compare the knowledge gained for animals, humans, and plants. The observation and analysis of genomics and epigenomics of multiple plant models will not only help to answer several intriguing questions, such as those related to plant development, metabolism regulation, evolution, and regeneration but will also help to increase the economic value of these crops, given the highly diverse developmental and metabolic behavior of different crops and their importance in human usage.
Md. Ataur Rahman